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Dahl, K., Josefson, A.B., Göke, C., Aagaard Christensen, J.P., Hansen, J.L.S., Markager, S., Rasmussen, M.B., Dromph, K., Tian, T., Wan, Z., Krämer, I., Viitasalo, M., Kostamo, K., Borenäs, K., Bendtsen, J., Springe, G., Bonsdorff, E.. Climate Change Impacts on Marine Biodiversity and Habitats in the Baltic Sea - and Possible Human Adaptations. In: Krarup Leth, O., Dahl, K., Peltonen, H., Krämer, I., Kule, L.(eds.). Sectoral Impact Assessments for the Baltic Sea Region - Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity, Fisheries, Coastal Infrastructure and Tourism. Coastline Reports (21), pp. 1-34. EUCC - The Coastal Union Germany, Rostock, 2013.


Climate change is expected to induce substantial changes in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. The Baltic Sea is generally recognized as a fragile ecosystem characterized by a low number of species that virtually all find their distribution range within the area. This article demonstrates, in a number of case studies, how first of all climate stressors, like increasing temperature, changing precipitation patterns and increasing sea level, are expected to severely affect ecosystem stressors like eutrophication and oxygen depletion. Secondly, the article focuses on how one or several climate or climate driven ecosystem pressures are expected to affect the Baltic Sea ecosystem using examples of expected changes in primary production, biodiversity and key habitats. The findings are based on existing reports as well as new analyses carried out as a part of the Baltadapt project. Finally, possible adaptation measures to secure a healthy Baltic Sea ecosystem in the future climate situation are discussed as well as management implications to existing policies.

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