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Kholeif, S.E.A.. Palynology of mangrove sediments in the Hamata Area, Red Sea Coast, Egypt: vegetation and restoration overview . In: Isermann, M., Kiehl, K. (eds.). Restoration of Coastal Ecosystems. Coastline Reports (7), pp. 5-16. EUCC - The Coastal Union , Leiden, 2007.


The present mangrove vegetation condition in the Abu Ghoson area of the Red Sea coast, Egypt can be recognised through field observations and palynological analysis of the intertidal flat and swamp environments, as well as through cores. In addition to illustrating the pollen distribution on the mangrove site, special attention is paid to Avicennia marina pollen distribution, which is the only mangrove pollen species in the investigated area. The maximum concentration of Avicennia marina is recorded (> 9000 pcm2) in the sediments which are taken in proximity to the aerial root (pneumatophore) of mangrove plants. Away from the area of mangrove roots and further seaward, it became rare to absent. This indicates that the pollen grains are inefficiently dispersed by the water current, which is considered the main tool of pollen dispersal away from the area of pollen production. The variation of mangrove pollen frequency in the core sediments can help to understand the vegetational changes associated with paleogeographic modification. In addition to poor pollen production, low catchment run-off and intense browsing have caused high stress conditions in mangrove communities. The threat to mangrove plants by extinction, hydrological changes, and physical stress from resorts around the mangroves would require assessment.

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